Modern tendencies together with growing consciousness about the negative environmental influence of the transportation technologies have yielded electric vehicles as one of the approaches for phasing out fuel-based vehicles. Different directives aimed at increasing demand for electric vehicles have been put in place, however, due to different reasons initial predictions resulted in an insufficient number of sold units and suboptimal solutions like hybrid vehicles. Consequently, the reduction in fuel consumption and pollution generation is insignificant on a global scale. The main deficiency of the electric vehicle is its battery-based storage unit, which due to the current state of development makes the electric vehicle less admissible for consumers. Relatively short cycle life, high sensitivity to ambient conditions, environmental hazards, and relatively limited output power are only some of the deficiencies of the current battery technology. However, a novel type of electric storage technology has recently emerged as a promising long term complement to the battery technology. Long cycle life, huge power density, and no environmental hazards make supercapacitor technology a viable and assuring addition to the battery storage. Furthermore, supercapacitors may offer the possibility of making the electric vehicle more competitive on the market as well as a more sustainable solution. Although the supercapacitor technology is still considered to be immature and more research is needed, this paper examines the possibilities and effects of using supercapacitors as part of the electric vehicle energy storage. The main goal is the analysis of the positive effects that the supercapacitor storage can have on the battery cycle life as well as on the electric vehicle performance and economy. Conclusions drawn from the herein presented research are based on the theoretical analysis, numerical models, and experimental verification, therefore it can be confirmed that using supercapacitors as a part of electric vehicle energy storage substantial improvements in performance, durability, and economy could be achieved.
图1 Principal scheme of the energy storage and EV drive system.
N. Vukajlovi?, D. Mili?evi?, B. Dumni?, B. Popadi?, Comparative analysis of the supercapacitor influence on lithium battery cycle life in electric vehicle energy storage, Journal of Energy Storage. 31 (2020) 101603. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.est.2020.101603.（下载链接）
S. Wu, R. Xiong, H. Li, V. Nian, S. Ma, The state of the art on preheating lithium-ion batteries in cold weather. J. Energy Storage, 27 (2020), Article 101059, 10.1016/j.est.2019.101059（下载链接）